- Lowers LDL levels by 29%
- Raises HDL levels by 24%
- Results in just 4-6 weeks
- Reduces the risk of heart disease
- Provides needed dietary fiber
Controlling Cholesterol Naturally
Glucomannan (Phytomannan) helps to lower cholesterol levels by reducing cholesterol absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (EFSA 2009, Sood et al. 2008, Martino et al. 2005, Chen et al. 2003, Arvill and Bodin 1995, Walsh et al. 1984).
Policosanol helps to lower cholesterol levels. In addition to improving serum lipids, policosanol reduces LDL oxidation, decreases platelet aggregation, decreases smooth muscle proliferation, and improves symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Side effects are virtually non-existent.
- 500mg Glucomannan (Phytomannan)
- 5mg Policosanol
Glucomannan: Click here to learn more
Glucomannan, Amorphophallus Konjac, Amorphophallus rivieri
Phytomannan™, Snake Plant, Devil's Tongue, Snake Palm, Konjac Mannan, Corpse Flowers, Voodoo Lily
Glucomannan helps to lower cholesterol levels by reducing cholesterol absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. It is used in Herbal Medicine as a bulk-forming laxative, to promote bowel movements by increasing bulk volume and water content and as a gentle relief of constipation and/or irregularity
Glucomannan is a water soluble fiber that provides many health-promoting benefits because of its ability to form a soft gel when exposed to water. Research indicates that soluble fibers help lower blood cholesterol, slows glucose absorption, lowers the Glycemic index and promotes regular bowel movements. Glucomannan is refined from the konjac root (Amorphophallus konjac). Glucomannan has an extraordinary water-holding capacity and is the most viscous of all known dietary fibers.
Glucomannan creates a feeling of satiety or fullness through its water-binding effects – it absorbs up to 200 times its weight. By creating a thick gel, Glucomannan delays gastric emptying and slows the release of sugar into the bloodstream, which helps to lower levels of insulin and blood glucose. Additionally, Glucomannan improves blood-lipid profiles and can lower systolic blood pressure. Because of these effects, Glucomannan can greatly benefit individuals with metabolic syndrome or diabetes. The average American currently consumes only 12-17 grams of fiber a day from dietary sources, far below the 20-35 grams recommended by the American Dietetic Association and the 30 grams or more suggested by both the American Heart Association and the National Cancer Institute.
Incorporating increased fiber intake into a daily plan for healthy living can help you lower your risk of heart attack and cancer, as well as prevent or manage such common conditions as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, fiber is a valuable tool in achieving optimal weight.
Medical professionals recommend adding fiber to the diet gradually until the body adjusts. Moreover, because soluble fibers form a gel with water, it is important to drink plenty of water with fiber supplements.
Glucomannan reduces blood fats, discourages weight gain, helps to keep blood sugar levels normal, and relieves constipation. When ingested, it takes on a jelly-like consistency and expands to make the stomach feel full. People are therefore sated more quickly and are less likely to overeat, according to results of trials in which obese patients were put on calorie-restricted diets and Glucomannan. In addition, like most food fiber, Glucomannan acts as a bulking agent in the colon, which stimulates peristalsis (the muscular movement that causes bowel evacuation)
Policosanol: Click here to learn more
Policosanol, Saccharum officinarum L.
Helps to lower cholesterol levels. Policosanol, an extract from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.), has been heavily researched in Cuba in several human populations for its cholesterol-lowering properties. In addition to improving serum lipids, policosanol reduces LDL oxidation, decreases platelet aggregation, decreases smooth muscle proliferation, and improves symptoms of cardiovascular disease Side erects are virtually non-existent.
Cuban-manufactured policosanol is a mixture of alcohols isolated and purified from sugar cane. It consists of 66% octacosanol (CH3-CH2(26)-CH2-0H), 12% triacontanol, and 7% hexacosanol. Other alcohols (15%), namely tetracosanol„ heptacosanol nonacosanol, dotriacontanol, and tetratriacontanol, are minor components.’
Mechanisms of Action
Policosanol appears to cause decreased synthesis and increased degradation of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), the rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. This is different than the mechanism of action of statin drugs, which work by competitively inhibiting HMG-CoA. Policosanol has also demonstrated improvement in LDL metabolism by increasing LDL binding, uptake, and degradation in human fibriablasts.
LDL oxidation is thought to be a necessary step in the development of atherosclerosis. Studies on humans and rats show policosanol decreases in vitro LDL oxidation using multiple oxidation models. Another step in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques is an increase in smooth muscle proliferation_ In rabbits, policosanol decreased neointimal formation, indicating decreased smooth muscle cell proliferation. In a comparative study, policosanol demonstrated a greater effect than lovastatin on neointimal formation.
Policosanol decreases platelet aggregation by decreasing the synthesis of platelet-aggregating thromboxame B2 (TXB2), with no effect on prostacyclin (PGI2). Studies demonstrate policosanol reduces platelet aggregation induced by a number of experimental substances with dose-dependent increases from 10-50 mg/day.
Policosanol alone at 20 mg/day was more effective than 100mg aspirin at reducing platelet aggregation induced by ADP, and equally effective when induced by epinephrine and collagen. Despite decreased platelet aggregation, there was no increase in coagulation time when Policosanol was taken alone; however, when combined with 100 mg/day aspirin, coagulation time increased.
The majority of policosanol research is on patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. Fifteen randomized, placebo-controlled; double-blind studies have shown positive results. Significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC) (8-23%), LDL (11.3 - 27.5%), LDL/HDL (15.3 - 38.3%), and TC/HDL (9.1 - 30.5%) were observed in all trials. Of the 13 trials measuring HDL, seven showed significant increases and in six HDL was unchanged.
Doses ranged from 2 - 40 mg/day, with decreases in TC, LDL, LDL/HDL, and TC/HDL and increases in HDL being dose-dependent up to 20 mg/day, with no further benefit at 40 mg/day. However, 40 mg/day significantly decreased triglycerides which was not seen with lower doses.
Policosanol was effective in three studies on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. All three trials used 5 mg twice daily for 12 weeks.
Total cholesterol was reduced by 14 - 29 percent, LDL was reduced by 20 - 44 percent, LDL/HDL ratio was reduced by 24 - 52 percent, and HDL was increased by 8 - 24 percent. No adverse effect on glycolic control was noted in any of the studies. In trials comparing policosanol with lovastatin (20 mg/day), policosanol performed significantly better at raising HDL and lowering the LDL/HDL ratio.
Two studies with a total of 300 patients indicate policosanol is effective in post-menopausal women with hypererlipidemia. Both studies started with 5 mg daily, which was later bummed (at week 8 in one study and week 12 in the other) to 10 mg daily for a period of eight or 12 more weeks. At the end of the 5-mg portion, TC, LDL, LDL/HDL, and TC/HDL decreased by 13-20 percent, 17-18 percent, 17.0-17.2 percent, and 16.3-16.7 percent, respectively, whereas HDL was unchanged in one trial and increased by 16.5 percent in the other. At the end of the 10-mg day period policosanol supplementation resulted in decreased TC, LDL, LDL/HDL, and TC/HDL by 17-20 percent, 25-28 percent 27-30 percent and 21-27 percent, respectively, and increased HDL 7-29 percent. Significantly more side effect were seen in the placebo group in each trial.
In comparative trials policosanol generated lipid profiles similar to simvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, probucol, acipimox, and atorvastatin. First two trials on patients with type II hypercholestenolemia, comparing low dose simvastatin (5 or 10 mg/day) and moderate dose policosanol (5 or 10 mg/day), demonstrated that both substances greatly improved lipid profiles with no significant differences in results or side effects between the groups. Second, policosanol (10 mg/day) compared favotably to low-dose pravastatin (10 mg/day) in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia in two studies. In one trial, policosanol-treated patients had significantly greater decreases in LDL, LDL/HDL, TC/HDL, and increases in HDL, while in another trial policosanol-treated patients had significantly greater increases in HDL. The pravastatin group had more side effects in both studies. A study comparing policosanol to lovastatin in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia (type II) found policosanol (10 mg/day) is more effective at lowering LDL/HDL and increasing HDL than 10 mg/day lovastatin, with significantlyly fewer side-effects. In addition, in patient with type II hypercholesterolemia and concomitant coronary risk factors, policosanol (10 mg/day) decreased LDL/HDL and increased HDL more effectively than 20 mg/day lovastatin, with fewer side effects. Policosanol (5 mg twice daily) also compared favorably to probrucol (500 mg twice daily) at reducing TC, LDL, and TG in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. Again, policosanol (10 mg/day) compared favorably to acipimox (750 mg/day), a niacin derivative, in regard to TC, LDL, LDL/HDL, TC/HDL, and HDL, with fewer side effects. Lastly, policosanol was significantly less effective than atorvastatin (Lipitor) in reducing both LDL and TC, although it was similar in reducing both atherogenic ratios and TG. Atorvastatin, however, significantly increased (p < 0_05) creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and creatinine, whereas policosanol significantly reduced alanine aminotransferase (AST), glucose (p < 0.01), and CPK (p < 0.05) levels. These studies suggest a therapeutic benefit to policosanol in type II hypercholesterolemia, while presenting no adverse effects on the liver.
In a trial to determine whether policosanol could safely be used for patients with altered liver function tests, 46 patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and elevated liver enzymes were treated with policosanol (5 or 10 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Both 5 and 10 mg policosanol significantly lowered lipids and reduced serum levels of ALT, suggesting improvement in liver function.
Two studies demonstrated positive results using policosanol for patients with intermittent claudication. In 62 patients treated with 10 mg policosanol twice daily for six months, the distance individuals could walk on a treadmill before noticing claudication symptoms increased 63.1 percent, and absolute distance to being unable to walk any further increased 65.1 percent, while placebo had no effect on walking distances. Policosanol also improved lower extremity symptoms of coldness and pain compared to placebo. In a two-year follow-up study with 56 patients, improvements were progressive throughout the study, with the distance walked before initial claudication symptoms improving 60.1 percent after six months and 187.8 percent after 24 months. Absolute walking distance increased 81 percent after six months and 249 percent after 24 months. Policosanol also significantly decreased symptoms of claudication and increased the ankle/arm pressure ratio at 12 and 24 months. Even more impressive, significantly more patients in the placebo group experienced serious vascular events (8 patients with 10 total serious adverse events), while none were experienced laced in the policosanol group.
Recently, intermittent claudication was investigated in comparative double-blind studies with lovastatin or ticlopidine. Policosanol significantly increased the initial and absolute claudication distances in both studies, surpassing ticlopidine (a platelet-aggregation inhibitor) in one study, while significantly out-competing lovastatin (which had minimal effect) in the other study.
Ischernic Heart Disease
Forty-five patients with documented ischemic heart disease were placed an 5 mg policosanol twice daily, 5 mg policosanol twice daily phis 125 mg aspirin (ASA), or 125 mg ASA for 20 months °’ The policosanol groups showed an insignificantly lower percentage of patients with functional progression of ischemia and a significantly greater partial regression of ischemia.
Furthermore, exercise capacity and left ventricular function improved significantly in the policosanol groups compared to the ASA-only group. Both policosanol groups were more effective than ASA alone, but policosanol plus aspirin therapy was more effective than policosanol alone. There were four vascular events in ASA alone (1 fatal myocardial infarction, 2 unstable angina, 1 cardiac failure), one in the group taking policosanol alone (non-fatal myocardial infarction), and none in the combined group.
A follow-up study on the same patients examined treadmill exercise ECG-testing performance. Those taking policosanol demonstrated decreases in cardiovascular functional class, rest and exercise-induced angina cardiac events, and ischemic ST-segment response.
These benefits were greatest in the policosanol plus aspirin group. In addition, policosanol showed an increase in maximum oxygen uptake, a decline in double product (peak heart rate times peak systolic blood pressure), and an increase in aerobic functional capacity compared to placebo.
Atherosclerotic lesions resulting in carotid-vertebral atherosclerosis improved in a study of 22 patients given 10 mg/day policosanol for one year.
Carotid-vertebral atherosclerosis assessed using Doppler-ultrasound showed progression of disease in three of 11 patients on placebo and no patients on policosanol. Disease regression occurred in six of 11 patients on policosanol and one on placebo. Neither of these values reached statistical significance; however, when a progress/regression ratio was calculated it did reach statistical significance for improvement with policosanol.
Policosanol (2 mg/day) improved abnormal rest and stress ECG patterns, and decreased symptoms of angina in a single-blind, 14 - month, placebo-controlled trial in 23 middle-aged patients with primary or marginal hypercholesterolemia
No patient had a new coronary event, but significantly more patients (5(12) in the policosanol group with stable angina or silent ischemia had improved coronary symptoms and/or rest and stress ECG patterns, compared to placebo (0)11) Policosanol-treated patients also had no deterioration in symptoms or ECG patterns, wlailp three of 11 placebo-treated patients deteriorated.
Clinical & Research Studies
Summary of Glucomannan Studies
Arvill A, Bodin L. Effect of short-term ingestion of konjac glucomannan on serum cholesterol in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Mar;61(3):585-9.
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Chen HL, Cheng HC, Liu YJ, Liu SY, Wu WT. 2006. Konjac acts as a natural laxative by increasing stool bulk and improving colonic ecology in healthy adults. Nutrition 22:1112-1119.
Chen HL, Cheng HC, Wu WT, Liu YJ, Liu SY. 2008. Supplementation of konjac glucomannan into a low-fibre Chinese diet promoted bowel movement and improved colonic ecology in constipated adults: a placebo-controlled, diet controlled trial. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 27:102-108.
Chen HL, Sheu WH, Tai TS, Liaw YP, Chen YC. Konjac supplement alleviated hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic subjects--a randomized double-blind trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):36-42.
Chua M, Baldwin TC, Hocking TJ, Chan K. 2010. Traditional uses and potential health benefits of Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch ex N.E.Br. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128(2):268-278.
EFSA 2009: European Food Safety Authority. 2009. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies; Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to glucomannan and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations (ID 836, 1560) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on request from the European Commission. EFSA Journal 7(9): 1258. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1258. [Accessed 2009-12-23]. Available from: www.efsa.europa.eu.
EMEA 2006. European Medicines Agency. Final Community Herbal Monograph on Plantago afra L. et Plantago indica L., semen. London (UK): EMEA Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC), 26 October 2006. [Accessed 2009 November 24]. Available from: http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/hmpc/psyllii_semen/34086505enfin.pdf
FDA 2009: United States Food and Drug Administration. 2009. Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products. Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Volume 4 (21CFR201.319). Rockville (MD): United States Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Accessed 2009-12-23]. Available from: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=201.319
Henry DA, Mitchell AS, Aylward J. Glucomannan and risk of esophageal obstruction. British Medical Journal. 1986 292:591-2.
Keithley J, Swanson B, 2005. Glucomannan and obesity: a critical review. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 11:30-34.
Loening-Baucke V, Miele E, Staiano A. 2004. Fiber (glucomannan) is beneficial in the treatment of childhood constipation. Pediatrics 113(3 Pt 1):e259-e264.
Martino F, Martino E, Morrone F, Carnevali E, Forcone R, Niglio T. Effect of dietary supplementation with glucomannan on plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic children. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Jun;15(3):174-80
NLM 2009: United States National Library of Medicine. ChemIDplus advanced [online]. Chemical name. RN: 000-00-0. Bethesda (MD): Specialized Information Services, United States National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Health & Human Services. [Accessed 2009 May 19]. Available from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?CHEM
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Sood N, Baker WL, Coleman CI. 2008. Effect of glucomannan on plasma lipid and glucose concentrations, body weight, and blood pressure: systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88(4):1167-1175.
Sweetman SC , editor. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference, 35th edition. London (UK): Pharmaceutical Press; 2007.
USDA 2003: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch. United States Department of Agriculture. [Accessed 2009-05-25]. Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/index.pl
Vanderbeek PB, Fasano C, O’Malley G, Hornstein J. 2007. Esophageal obstruction from a pharmacobezoar containing glucomannan. Clinical Toxicology 45(1):80-82.
Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Xu Z, Wong EYY, Jenkins AL, Beljan-Zdravkovic U, Leiter LA, Josse RG, Stavro M.P. 2001. Konjac-mannan and American ginsing: emerging alternative therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 20:370S-380S.
Walsh DE, Yaghoubian V, Behforooz A. Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study. Int J Obes. 1984;8(4):289-93
Al-Ghazzewi FH, Khanna S, Tester RF, Piggott J. 2007. The potential use of hydrolysed konjac glucomannan as a prebiotic. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87:1758-1766.
Alonso-Sande M, Teijeiro-Osorio D, Remuñán-López C, Alonso MJ. 2009. Glucomannan, a promising polysaccharide for biopharmaceutical purposes. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 72:453-462.
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No. S 667, Monday 22 December 1986. Notice of Permanent Ban: Glucomannan in tablet form. Canberra (AU): Australian Government Publishing Service. [Accessed 2009-05-26]. Available from: www.accc.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/780157
Birketvedt GS, Shimshi M, Thom E, Florholmen J. Experiences with three different fiber supplements in weight reduction. Med Sci Monit 2005; 11(1): P15-8
Chen HL, Fan YH, Chen ME, Chan Y. 2005. Unhydrolyzed and hydrolyzed konjac glucomannans modulated cecal and fecal microflora in Balb/c mice. Nutrition 21:1059-1064.
EC-SCF 1997: European Commission 1997 Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food (forty-first series): Opinion on the safety in use of konjac glucomannan as a food additive. Brussels (LU): Office for Official Publications of the European Communities [Accessed 2009-12-23]. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/reports/scf_reports_41.pdf
EC-SCF 1997: European Commission 1997. Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food (forty-first series): Opinion on the safety in use of konjac gum as a food additive. Brussels (LU): Office for Official Publications of the European Communities [Accessed 2009-12-23]. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/reports/scf_reports_41.pdf
Facciola S. 1998. Cornucopia II: A Source Book of Edible Plants. Vista CA: Kampong Publications.
FDA 1993: United States Food and Drug Administration. 1993. 21 CFR Part 201. Warning Statements Required for Over-the-Counter Drugs Containing Water-soluble Gums as Active Ingredients. Final Rule. Federal Register Volume 58, No. 164, August 26, 1993. [Accessed 2009-12-29]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/Over-the-CounterOTCDrugs/StatusofOTCRulemakings/ucm085690.pdf
FDA 1994: United States Food and Drug Administration. 1994. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. [Accessed 2009-12-24]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Legislation/FederalFoodDrugandCosmeticActFDCAct/SignificantAmendmentstotheFDCAct/ucm148003.htm
HC 1999. Health Canada. 1999. Listing of drugs currently regulated as new drugs. [Accessed 2008-04-11]. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/applic-demande/guide-ld/newdrug-drognouv/index_e.html.
HC 2008: Health Canada. 2008. Drug Product Database [online]. Ottawa (ON): Health Canada. [Accessed 2009 April 17]. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/databasdon/index-eng.php
HC 2009: Health Canada. 2009. Canada Vigilance Search REF: 09-137593-955 - Glucomannan.
HC 2009: Health Canada. Licensed Natural Health Products Database. [Accessed 2009 December 4]. Available from: http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/lnhpd-bdpsnh/start-debuter.do?lang=eng
JC 2009: Justice Canada 2009. Food and Drugs Act. [Accessed 2009-10-28]. Available from: http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/F-27/index.html Livieri C, Novazi F, Lorini R. 1992. The use of highly purified glucomannan-based fibers in childhood obesity. La Pediatria medica e chirurgica 14(2):195-198.
Roberts A, O’Brien M, Subak-Sharpe G. 2001. Glucomannan, The Official American Nutraceutical Association Guide, Nutraceuticals The Complete Encyclopedia of Supplements, Herbs, Vitamins, and Healing Foods.
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Vasques CAR, Rossetto S, Halmenschlager G, Linden R, Heckler E, Fernandez MSP, Alonso JLL. 2008. Evaluation of the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of Garcia cambogia plus Amorphophallus konjac for the treatment of obesity. Phototherapy Research 22:1135-1140.
Villaverde AF, Benlloch S, Berenguer M, Rayon JM, Pina R, Berenguer J. 2004. Acute hepatitis of cholestatic type possibly associated with the use of glucomannan (Amorphophallus konjac). Journal of Hepatology 41:1061-1067.
Vuksan V, Jenkins DJA, Spadafora P, Sievenpiper JL, Owen R, Vidgen E, Brighenti F, Josse R, Leiter LA, Thompson CB. 1999. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 22:913-919.
Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Owen R, Swilley JA, Spadafora P, Jenkins FJA, Vidgen E, Brighenti F, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Xu Z, Novokmet R. 2000. Beneficial effects of viscous dietary fibre from konjac-mannan in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes Care 23:9-14.
Yoshida M, Vanstone CA, Parsons WD, Zawistowski J, Jones PJ. Effect of plant sterols and glucomannan on lipids in individuals with and without type II diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Apr;60(4):529-37
Summary of Policosanol Studies
Arruzazabala Noa M, Menendez R, et aL Protective effect of policosanol on atheroscle-rotic lesions in rabbits with exogenous hypercholestero Ionia Bier J,IfedEiol Res 20003:S35-S40
Menendez R, Amor AM, Gonzalez R, et al_Effect of policosanol on the hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis of normocholesterolemic rats. Bid Res 1906;29253-257
Menendez IL Amor AM, Rodeiro L et at Policosanol modulates HMG-CoA reductase activity in cultured fibroblasts_ April ,fedRes 2001;32:3-12
Menendez lc Fernandez SL Del Rio A, et at Policosanol inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis and enhances low density lipoprotein process-ing in cultured human fibroblasts. Bid Res 1994;27:199-203
Menendez R., Era= V, Antler MA, et al_ Oral arlmin stration of policosanol inhibits in idyn, copper ion-induced rat lipoprotein peroxidation_ Physid Behan 1.999;67:1-7.
Menendez Mas E., Amor MA, at aL Effects of policosanol treatment on the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL) isolated from healthy volunteers to oxidative modification in vifro. Br .1 Clin Fharmaeol 2000;50:255-262.
Noa M, Mas 17`_ Mesa IL Effect of policosanol on itilin121 thickening in rabbit cuffed carotid artery_ Int _I Candid 1998 67:175-112
Noa M, Mas IL Mesa /7,_ A comparative study of policosanol vs lovastatin on inumal thirlomirg in rabbit cuffed carotid artery_ iliarotar_ol Res 2001;43
Carbajal D, Annzazakda ML Valdes S, Mas Effect of policosanol on platelet aggregation and serum levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in healthy volunteers_ PrDstagket-dins LEiricOrEsserat Pat iy Acids 1998;58:61-64.
Castano G, Mas R Arruzazabala M, at at Effects of policosanol and pravastatin on lipid profile, platelet aggregation and endothelemia in older ItyperchoIesterolemic patients. Intl aim Phwentard Res 1999;29,105_116.
Valdes Sr. Arruzazabala MI, Fernandez L, et at Effect of policosanol on platelet aggregation in healthy vohmteers. Int J Can Pharmacal Ras 1996;16:67-72.
Ainizazabala /1/411M, Valdes 5, Mas I., et at E.ffect of polionsanot successive dose increase on platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers_ PheiffTliaral ReS 1996,34:181-185
Arruzazabala ML, Valdes 5, Mas 11z et at C0111].’uative study of policosanol, and the cont.:mon therapy policosanol-aspirin on platzle: a...2.:segation. in healthy vohmteers. Pharinacal Res 195736:293-297.
Arnizazabala ML, Mas lt, Molina V, et al Effect of policosanol on platelet aggregation in type II bypercholesterolemic patients. Int Tissue Reaet 1998;20:119-124
Pons P, Mas R IlInait I, et at Efficacy and safety of policosanol in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia Cicer Ther Res ain Expo 1992;52:507-511
Aneiros E, Calderon B, Mas R, et al Effect of successive dose incraises of policosanol on the lipid profile and tolerability of treatment_ Czar Titer Res Mx Elq, 1993:54:304-112
Pons P Rodriguez M, Mas It et al One-year efficacy and safety ofpolicosanol in patients with type II hypercholestemlemia Carr Tiler Res Clin Thy, 1994;55:1084-1092
Pons F; Rodriquez M, Robaina C, et aL Effects of successive dose increases of policosanol on the lipid profile of patients with type 11 hypercholesterelemia and tolerability to treatment Int J Clin _Many:fled Res 1994;14:27-31
Canetti M, Moreira M, Ilinait F, et aL One-year study of the effect of policosanol on lipid profile in patients with. type II hypercholester¬olemia_ Ada Thee 1995;12:245-254
Aneiros E, Mas R, Calderon B, et at Effect of policosanol in lowering cholesterol levels in patients with type 11 hyperclaolesterolemia. Carr Titer Res Clin Etp 1995;56:176-182.
Castano Or Mas R, Nodarse M, et al One-year study of the efficacy and safety of policosanol (5 mg twice daily) in the treatment of type 11 hypercholesterolemia’ _ Cie?. Ther Res Clip Exp 1995;56:296-304
Callan M Moreira 14, Mac R, et at A two-year study on the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in patients with type II hyperlipoproteinemii int,/ aim Pharinacol Res 1995;15:159-165.
Castano 0: Canetti M, Moreira M, et al Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol iii elderly patients with type II hyperclialester-olemix a 1 2-montla stut. Cure Thar Res an Ezp 1995;56:819-827.
Castano 0, Tbla L, Canetti M, at al Effects of policosanol in hypertensive patients with type II hypercholesterolemia Oar’ Thar Res ails _Elp 1996;57:691-699
Batista 3, Suisse! R, Saez F, Perez B. Effect of policosanol on hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease in middle-aged patients_ A 14-month pilot study. list .1 Odin Filaratricai Them 1996;34:134-137.
Mas R, Cassano G, ItIttait J, et al Effects of policosanol in patients with type II hypercho-lesterolemia and additional coronary risk factors. Clint Pharmatal The. 1999;65:439- 447
Castano 0, Masi?, Fernandez IC, et al Effects of policosanol in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and high coronary risk_ .1 atranto12001562U/1186-M192
Castano Mat R, Fe-mm:1e? L et at Effects of policosanol 20 versus 40 nagday in the treatment of patients with type II hy-percholes¬terolemia: a 6-mouth double-blind study. Ent Clip Pliarinacor Res 2001;21:43-57.
Castano 0, Mas R Fernandez TIC et at Effects of policosanol on older patients with hyperten-sion and type II hypercholesterolaernia Drugs R D 2002;3:159-172
Crespo N, Alvarez R, Mas R, et aL Effects of policosanol on patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hypercholes¬terolemia. a pilot study. Cirrr Thee. Res aigi Exp 1997;58:44-51.
31. Torres 0, Agramonte A, [auk I, et at Treatment of hypercholesterolenia in NB3DM with policosanol Diabetes Care 1995;18:393-397
Crespo N, Illnait 3, Mas It et al Comparative study of the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol and lovastatin in patients with hypercholesterolemia and monin.culin depen-dent diabetes mellitus. Int fain Pharmaeat Res 1999;29:117-127
Castano 0„ Mas R Fernandez L, et al Effects of policosanol and lovastatin in patients with intermittent claudication: a double-blind comparative pilot study_ Asigialogy 2003;54:25-38.
Castano G, Mas R, Fernandez L, et aL Effects of policosanol on postmenopamal W01111E21 with type It hypercholesterolemia_ Gynecol Ertdocrirtoi 2000;14187-195.
Africk A„ Mas R, Martinto M, et at Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in hypercholester¬olemic postmenopausal women_ IrrtJCith Pharmarol Ras 2001;21:11-41.
Orterisi G, Gladstein I Valli 14, Tesone PA A comparative study of policosanol versus simvastasin in elderly patients with hypercholes¬terolemia Oar TAfitr F.es CIthEv 1997;5890- 401.
Castano G Mas Fl Fernandez _IC_ A comparative study on the efficacy and tolerabil-ity of policosanol and inwastatin for treating type II hypercholesterolemia Cop .1 Carfild 1997;134213.
Benitez Ni, Romero C, Mas R, et at A compara¬tive study of policosanol versus pravastatin patients with type LIE linercholesterolernia_ Carr Titer Rey Clan ap 1957;58:859-867.
Castano G, Mas R, Fernandez IC et at Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol compared with lovastatin in patients with type II hypercholester¬olezmia and C0fICOClitatit coronary risk actors Cf117 Then Res clin Etp 2000;61:137-146
Pons 2, Moak I, Mas R, et aL A comparative study of policosanol versus probucci in patients with hmercholesterolemia_ Cider Ther.R.er _Eicp 1997;586-35.
Alcocer L, Fernandez L, Campos E, Mat It A comparative surly of policosanol versus acipiroox in patients with type LE hypercholester¬ole:mia fret .1 TIS.Sua Raced 1999;21:85-92.
Castano Ct Mas R, Fernandez L, et at Compri¬sOn of the efficacy and tolerability of policosanut with atm-amnia in elderly patients with well hypercholesterolaemia _ire S4 2001:20:151-161
Zardoya B, MAIL, Castano G, et aL Effects of policosanol on hype rcholesterolemic patients with abnormal serum biochemivil. indicators of hepatic function. Corr Tinw Res Clint Exp 1996;57:568-577
Castor G Mas R, Roca I, et at A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of policosanol in patients with intermittent ciaudicaticm_ Anvolagy 1999;50:17-130
C=2= G. Mas it, Feenande.z L et al A long-term study of policosanol in the treatment of intemainent claudication_ Ayogialogv 2001;52:115-125.
Castano G, Mas R, Games R, et at Effects of policosanol and ticlopktme patients with innatmittent amidtcaticFm a double-blinded pilot comparative study Atgiology 2004;55:361-371.
Batista 3, Strasser R, Padnyn It et at Functional improvement in coronary artery disease after 20 months of lipid-Loweting therapy with policoninoL rtdw Pier 1996:13:137-148
Stusser R, Batista I Padron Let 21 Long-term therapy with policosanol improves treadmill exercise-ECG testing performance of coronary heart disease patients. Intl Cfirr Pharmatal liter 1998;36:469-473
Batista I, Stusser R, Pettichet M Liguet F. Doppler-ultras: and pilot study of the effects of long-term/I policosanol therapy on carotid-vertebral atherosclerosis_ CtsPy Ther Rgs Clip Exp 1995;56:906-914
Fernandes L Mas R, lllnat I Fernandez IC. Policosanol: results of a postmarketing surveillance study of 27,879 patients. Cuff ilierkn ClinExp,1998;59:717-722
Celia AL, Mas R, Hernandez C, et aL A 12-month study of policosanol orni toxicity in. Sprague Dawley rats. Tarim/Left 1994;70:77-87.
Allman CL, Mas R,Noa M, cal Carcinogenic¬ity ofpolicosanol in Sprague Dawley rats: a24 month study_ Taratos, Cortipiog _11:Mogen 1994;14139-249
Mesa AR,. //Las R Noa M, et at Toxicity of policosanol in beagle dogs: one-year study Tat ka 1 Lett 1994;71:81-90
Rodreguez-FrIwnivie C, Mesa R. Mas R, et at Effects of policosariol chronically administered in male monkeys (ifrocarcr oierroidei). Food °r art Trairof 1994;3265-575
Aleman CI, Nita rd, Elias EC, et at Carcinoge-nicity of policosanol in mice: an 18-month study-. _Food Ohm. Tueecof 1995;33:571-578.
Rochiguez MD, Garcia IL Evahiation of peri-and post-natal toxicity of policosanol in rats_ Teratiog Carcimg Millagov 1998;18:1-7.
Rodriguez MD, Garcia H. Teratogenic and reproductive studies of policosanol in the rat and rabbit Tereeog Cearrorog Mr.das-av 1994;14:107¬113
Rodriguez MD, Sanchez Ni, Garcia R Muhigeneration reproduction study of policosanol in rats. TOXinil Lett 1997;907-106
Dosage and Preparation
Take 2-3 capsules with a large glass of water 30 minutes prior to meals. Take 3 times per day.
Background & History
Helps reduce coloric absorption from the gastrointestinal tract EFSA 2009, Sood et al. 2008, Martino et al. 2005, Chen et al. 2003, Arvill and Bodin 1995, Walsh et al. 1984
Is used in Herbal Medicine to) promote(s) bowel movements by increasing bulk volume and water content Chua et al. 2010, Chen et al. 2008, Chen et al. 2006, Gonzalez Canga et al. 2004, Loening-Baucke et al. 2004
Is used in Herbal Medicine to) provide(s) gentle relief of constipation and/or irregularity Chua et al. 2010, Chen et al. 2008, Chen et al. 2006, Gonzalez Canga et al. 2004, Loening-Baucke et al. 2004
Helps to lower cholesterol levels: In addition to improving serum lipids, policosanol reduces LDL oxidation, decreases platelet aggregation, decreases smooth muscle proliferation, and improves symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Side erects are virtually non-existent.